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Peanut, milk, and wheat intake during pregnancy is associated with reduced allergy and asthma in children.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2014. Bunyavanich S, Rifas-Shiman SL, Platts-Mills TA, Workman L, Sordillo JE, Camargo CA, Jr., et al.
BACKGROUND: Maternal diet during pregnancy may affect childhood allergy and asthma. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the associations between maternal intake of common childhood food allergens during early pregnancy and childhood allergy and asthma. METHODS: We studied 1277 mother-child pairs from a US prebirth cohort unselected for any disease. Using food frequency questionnaires administered during the first and second trimesters, we assessed maternal intake of common childhood food allergens during pregnancy. In mid-childhood (mean age, 7.9 years), we assessed food allergy, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis by questionnaire and serum-specific IgE levels. We examined the associations between maternal diet during pregnancy and childhood allergy and asthma. We also examined the cross-sectional associations between specific food allergies, asthma, and atopic conditions in mid-childhood.
RESULTS: Food allergy was common (5.6%) in mid-childhood, as was sensitization to at least 1 food allergen (28.0%). Higher maternal peanut intake (each additional z score) during the first trimester was associated with 47% reduced odds of peanut allergic reaction (odds ratio [OR], 0.53; 95% CI, 0.30-0.94). Higher milk intake during the first trimester was associated with reduced asthma (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69-0.99) and allergic rhinitis (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74-0.97). Higher maternal wheat intake during the second trimester was associated with reduced atopic dermatitis (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.46-0.90). Peanut, wheat, and soy allergy were each cross-sectionally associated with increased childhood asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis (ORs, 3.6 to 8.1).
CONCLUSION: Higher maternal intake of peanut, milk, and wheat during early pregnancy was associated with reduced odds of mid-childhood allergy and asthma.